Rise of English as Second Language

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Language has carried a vital significance since ages. We can still see some stones carved with instincts being found burried, how it became possible ? It’s the language which has made it through , life would have been extremely bitter if language would not have poured in some sweetness . Different languages are spoken all around the world , the integrity lies reshaping the lives of humans since the era started on this blue planet. It would have been a tedious task to talk through and convey ourselves without words, communication makes life easy for us .Humans have capatilized their language quite well.

We could see the great transformation since the time human put his foot on the bosom of this planet. Have you ever imagine a life without being communication with your dear ones ? Probably no, because we have been bound to it , so used to it that we often forgets that it has taken centuries to transform language into meaningful sentences..We should be thankful to our forefathers for gifting us such a marvellous thing which has continued and will the same till the doomsday, the irony of the language will never be compromised. When we talk our fortunes , what has been duly left by our forefathers we forgets to count on this precious gift, its truly a gem we should be thankful of but our generation hardly refers it. We need to draw our attention and crave our nerves how it would have been without language. Just imagine a life of a deaf person and you will come to know it would have resembled the latter.In the nut shell I would like to say that language is a tool which signifies the morality different backgrounds.

English Language has become more dominent around the world. In some countries it is used as the mother tongue and some countries learn it as second language in their schools, it makes English widespread .It is used for communicating between people around the world. English is the language of science and technology. English is the language of communication between the people with different cultures , It is also the language of computers that help to communicate with the people around the world through Internet, it is the language of the modern era. People use it in various fields of life such as art, literature, poetry, economy , e-commerce, medicine and aviation. These reasons motivate the people to learn English. English is dominant in the present time because it is used in the field of education by universities and Institutes . English is an important requirement in most government jobs and private jobs, companies welcome those who are fluent in English and have the relevant qualification.

There are major differences in writing English and speaking English. Its not necessary that a person who can write English can also speak Engliah fluently.English is so widely spoken that it has often been referred to as the global language . English is the most commonly used International language.English is important because it is the only language that truly links the whole world together, when a person travels to another part of the world either for the sake of business or even as a tourist the language may differ. In these conditions English is the language that helps people to deal with the situation, it is clear that English has become a necessity today and we need it in different fields of life.

There are so many languages but English is considered second language in India. In India English occupies the position of a second language.. The use of English as a link language has given rise to certain problems. A few years ago an attempt was made to use Hindi as the medium for official communication but this did not work because of the tremendous effort involved in translating from hindi to a regional language. Mostly 300 million people of the world understand and speak English, most business transaction within the country and between countries is conducted in English. It is also the gateway of higher education because specialised and technical courses are usually conducted in English . English is also called the library language . Many thinkers say that English language is the vehicle works of life. English as a second language in our country were determined in a workshop held in Calcutta organized jointly by experts from Britain and India in 1981.

During the past few centuries English has spread to various alien lands. In certain parts of world English has replaced the local languages or at least has thrown them out of the main stream culture. But in several parts of Africa and Asia English along with native languages has co-existed for hundred of year’s .Indian English is a non-native variety of English language. The language came to India by the Britishers, people left but the language remained with the process of language contact with Indian language. It exists as one of the International varities of English and It is as recognizable a variety of English as American English , Australian English or New Zealand English with of course the difference that while these others are native varities of English .We are aware of it as consisting in certain distinguishable features, we might even sometimes try to bend the English language to suit our needs and purposes but when one focuses his attention to the social status enjoyed by English Language in this country , we might be anxious to get caught using “Indian English”. English language is evolved that is why we have varities like Hinglish, Banglish etc.

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History of English Language

The History of English is divided into three periods – old period from about 700 to 1100AD, Middle period from 1100 to 1500 AD and modern English from1500 to the present.
Old English – The Invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages which in Britain developed into what we now called Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless about half of the most commonly words in modern English have old English roots. The words are strong and water derives from old English, it was spoken spoken until around 1100. Old English was clearly Germanic but it had borrowed many words already from Latin, old English continued to coin its own words and thus remained vibrant in its usage.

Middle English- In 1066 William the conqueror the duke of Normandy (the part of modern France) invaded conquered English. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them kind old French which became the language of the royal and the business man classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic division where the lower classes spoke English and the upper class spoke French. In the fourteen century English became dominant in Britain again but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (1340-1400) but it would still be the difficult for native English speakers to understand today.

Modern English
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Early Modern English- (1500-1800)

Towards the end of Middle English sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started with vowels being pronounced the shorter and shorter. From the sixteen century the Britain had contact with many people around the world, renaissance of classic learning meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there is a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned and read. Printing also brought standardization to English spelling and Grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London where most publishing houses became the standard .In the first English dictionary was published.

Late Modern English (1800-Present)

The main difference between early modern English and late Modern English is vocabulary. Late modern English has many more words arising from two principle factors –firstly the industrial revolution and technology created a need for new words. Secondly the British Empire at its height covered the quarter of the earth surface and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.

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